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Rivers and streams were once viewed as passive pipes, delivering terrestrial material directly to the ocean. However this is far from true and these systems are more like bioreactors than passive pipes. For example, the latest estimates show that the greenhouse gas flux from

inland waterways could offset the amount of carbon fixed by land plants. The Barefoot team is undertaking a range of research in rivers and streams from the smallest ephemeral headwater streams, to the world’s largest river, The Amazon.

Examples of publications:

Headwater stream carbon cycle

River carbon budgets

Floodplain groundwater and greenhouse gases